Detection of Chemical Properties of Ghee Containing Various Levels of Palm Oil and Beef Tallow on RSM

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Ph. D. Graduated of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Food and Drug Laboratory Research Center, Food and Drug Organization, MOH & ME, Tehran, Iran.

4 Associate Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

Abstract

This study is concerned with the detection of adulterated ghee with various levels of palm oil and beef tallow with the application of particular chemical characteristics of ghee, palm oil and beef tallow namely sterol, and fatty acids profiles by response surface methodology (RSM). Among the parameters investigated, If the fatty acid profile is modeled under the optimized conditions, the detection level for adulteration with palm oil was higher than 8.7% and with beef tallow was 12.84% for ghee samples from different regions. Moreover, if all of the sterols in the adulterated ghee sample with palm oil are assessed and detected, the adulteration detection level for all the three regions will be the minimum added palm oil (>1%). Moreover, Regarding the Raman spectroscopy data showed that the adulteration detection level was between 5.8–16.9%. Therefore, the regression models were a good method for measuring the market acceptance of ghee containing palm oil and beef tallow.

Keywords


Barber, M. C., Clegg, R. A., Travers, M. T. & Vernon, R. G. (1997). Review. Lipid metabolism in the lactating mammary gland. Biochimica Biophysica Acta Journal, 1347, 101–126.

Beattiea, J. R., Bella, S. E. J., Borgaard, C., Fearona, A. M. & Moss, B. W. (2004). Multivariate Prediction of Clarified Butter Composition Using Raman Spectroscopy. Lipids Journal, 39(9), 897-906.

Bernstein, P. S. (2002). New insights into the role of the macular carotenoids in age-related macular degeneration. Resonance Raman studies. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 74(8), 1419-1425.

Borkovcová, I., Janoušková, E., Dracˇková, M., Janštová, B. & Vorlová, L. (2009). Determination of sterols in dairy products and vegetable fats by HPLC and GC methods. Czech Journal of Food Science, 27(Special Issue), 217–219

Deelstra, H., Thorburn Burns, D. & Walker, M. J. (2014). The adulteration of food, lessons from the past, with reference to butter, margarine and fraud. European Food Research Technology, 239, 725-744.

Derewiaka, D., Sosinaska, E., Obiedzinski, M. & Krogulec, A. (2011). Determination of adulteration of butter. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 113, 1005-1011.

El-Abassy, R.M., Eravuchira, P.J., Donfack, P., von der Kammer, B. & Materny, A. (2011). Fast determination of milk fat content using Raman spectroscopy. Vibrational Spectroscopy Journal, 56, 3–8.

Farag, R. S., Ahmed, F. A., Shihata, A. A. & Abo-Raya S. H. (1982). Use of unsopomifiable matter for detection of ghee adulteration with other fats. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society, 59(12), 557-560.

Fernandez, C., Astier, C., Rock, E., Coulon, J. B. & Berdagué, J. L. (2003). Characterization of milk by analysis of its terpene fractions. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 38, 445–451.

Giuseppe, Z., Conterno, L. & Gerbi, V. (2001). Determination of organic acids, sugars, diacetyl, and acetoin in cheese by highperformance liquid chromatography. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 49, 2722–272.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (2011), “International Standard 12966-2”, Animal and vegetable fats and oils -- Gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters -- Part 2: Preparation of methyl esters of fatty acids. Geneva, Switzerland: International Standards Organization.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (2014), “International Standard 12228-1:2014”, specifies a procedure for the gas chromatographic determination of the content and composition of sterols in animal and vegetable fats and oils. Geneva, Switzerland: International Standards Organization.

International Standards Organisation/International Dairy Federation, ISO 17678:2010 (IDF 202: 2010), Milk and milk products—determination of milk fat purity by gas chromatographic analysis of triglycerides (reference method).

Kirk, R. S.  & Sawyer, R. (1991). Pearson’s composition and analysis of foods, 9th edition. Longman Scientific & Technical, Essex, UK.

Mehta, M. (2013). Consumption pattern and fatty acid composition of ghee. Food science research journal, 4(2), 116-120.

Montgomery, D. C. (2008). Design and analysis of experiments. John Wiley & Sons.

Munro, D. S., Cant, P. A. E., Mac Gibbon, A. K. H., Illingworth, D., Kennett, A. & Main, A. J. (1992). Concentrated milkfat products. In The Technology of Dairy products, ed. R. Early. Blackie and Sons Ltd, Glasgow, pp. 117-145.

Nurrulhidayah, A. F., Che Man, Y.B., Amin, L. Arieff Salleh, R., Farawahideh, M.Y., Shuhaimi, M. & Khatib, A. (2015).  FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy Based metabolite fingerprinting as a direct determination of butter adulterated with lard. International Journal of Food Properties, 18, 372-379.

Fox, P. F. & McSweeney, P. L. H. (1998). Dairy Chemistry and Biochemistry, Blackie Academic and Professional.

Palmquist, D. L. (2006). Milk Fat: Origin of Fatty Acids and Influence of Nutritional Factors Thereon. In Advanced Dairy Chemistry Vol. 2, edited by Fox, P.M., McSweeney, P.L.H, Third Editions. Springer US. pp. 43-92.

Parodi, P. (2004). Milk fat in human nutrition. Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 59, 3-59.

Rani, A., Sharma, V., Arora, S., Ghai, D. L. & Kumar, A. (2015). A rapid reversed-phase thin layer chromatographic protocol for detection of adulteration in ghee (clarified milk fat) with vegetable oils. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(4), 2434-2439.

Rebechi, S.R., Velez, M.A., Vaira, S. & Perotti, M.C. (2015). Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques. Journal of Food Chemistry, 192, 1025-32.

Schulz, H., Baranska, M. & Baranski, R. (2005). Potential of NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy in natural carotenoid analysis. Biopolymers, 77(4), 212-221.