Detection of Chemical Properties of Ghee Containing Various Levels of Palm Oil and Beef Tallow on RSM

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Ph. D. Graduated of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Food and Drug Laboratory Research Center, Food and Drug Organization, MOH & ME, Tehran, Iran.

4 Associate Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.


This study is concerned with the detection of adulterated ghee with various levels of palm oil and beef tallow with the application of particular chemical characteristics of ghee, palm oil and beef tallow namely sterol, and fatty acids profiles by response surface methodology (RSM). Among the parameters investigated, If the fatty acid profile is modeled under the optimized conditions, the detection level for adulteration with palm oil was higher than 8.7% and with beef tallow was 12.84% for ghee samples from different regions. Moreover, if all of the sterols in the adulterated ghee sample with palm oil are assessed and detected, the adulteration detection level for all the three regions will be the minimum added palm oil (>1%). Moreover, Regarding the Raman spectroscopy data showed that the adulteration detection level was between 5.8–16.9%. Therefore, the regression models were a good method for measuring the market acceptance of ghee containing palm oil and beef tallow.


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