Germinated Legumes (Mung Bean and Cowpea) as Potential Commodities for Preparing Complementary Baby Foods

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Student of the Department of Food Science, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Professor of the Department of Food Science, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of the Department of Food Science, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.

Abstract

Legumes and pulses have high nutritive values and functional properties that exert positive effects on health and nutrition. This study developed a novel complementary baby food using germinated mung bean and cowpea as sources of extra nutrients supplemented to the infants (aging 6-12 months). The carbohydrate contents of mung bean and cowpea showed 64.3 and 64.0% reduction, respectively, during 48 h of germination. However, phosphorous and zinc contents and antioxidant activities of mung bean and cowpea and the iron content of cowpea increased over the same period of germination. Five baby food formulations were prepared and evaluated according to a standard formula for a commercial baby food which was also used as the control. The finalized formula had higher protein (22.4%), calcium (6,100 mg kg1), phosphorus (5,133 mg kg 1) and vitamin D (329 IU in 100 g) contents but lower contents of iron (55.5 mg kg 1), vitamin C as ascorbic acid (0.1 mg in 100 g) and vitamin B12 (1.2 mg in 100 g) than the control. A finalized formula with good appearance, flavor and taste as well as an overall general acceptance was obtained that can be used to fight mal-nutritional issues in certain developing countries.

Keywords


Abiose, S. H., Ikujenlola, A. V. & Abioderin, F. I. (2015). Nutritional quality assessment of complementary foods produced from fermented and malted quality protein maize fortified with soybean flour. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 65(1), 49-56.

Achidi, A. U., Tiencheu, B., Tenyang, N., Womeni, H. M., Moyeh, M. N., Ebini, L. T. & Fossi, T. (2016). Quality evaluation of nine instant weaning foods formulated from cereal, legume, tuber, vegetable and crayfish. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, 6(2), 21-31.

Anon. (2003). Iranian standard complementary food for infants and children based on processed cereal. Certification No. 2285 4th revision? Tehran, Iran.

AOAC. (2010). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 18th ed, 3rd rev., Washington, D.C.

Davis, J., Sonesson, U., Baumgartner, D. U. & Nemecek, T. (2010). Environmental impact of four meals with different protein sources: case studies in Spain and Sweden. Food Research International, 43(7), 1874-1884.

Desalegn, B. B., Abegaz, K. & Kinfe, E. (2015). Effect of blending ratio and processing technique on physicochemical composition, functional properties and sensory acceptability of quality protein maize (QPM) based complementary food. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, 5(3), 121-129.

Devi, C. B., Kushwaha, A. & Kumar, A. (2015). Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(10), 6821-6827.

Erbersdobler, H. F., Barth, C. A. & Jah-reis, G. (2017). Legumes in human nutrition. Nutrient content and protein quality of pulses. Ernahrungs Umschau, 64(9), 134-139.

Ertop, M. H. & Bektaş, M. (2018). Enhancement of Bioavailable Micronutrients and Reduction of Antinutrients in Foods with Some Processes. Food and Health, 4(3), 159-165.

FAO/WHO. (1994). Codex Alimentarius Standards for Foods for Special Dietary Uses (including foods for infants and children), Vol. 4. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program Rome: WHO, Codex Alimentarius Commission; Rome, Italy.

Fasuan, T. O., Fawale, S. O., Enwerem, D. E., Uche, N. & Ayodele, E. A. (2017). Physicochemical, functional and economic analysis of complementary food from cereal, oilseed and animal polypeptide. International Food Research Journal, 24(1), 275-283.

Fayyaz, N., Mohebbi, M. & Milani, E. (2018). Effect of germination on nutrients, mineral, phytic acid and enzyme activity of mung bean. Acta Medica Mediterranea, 34, 597-605.

Fouad, A. A. & Rehab, F. M. (2015). Effect of germination time on proximate analysis, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) sprouts. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria, 14(3) 233-246.

Gulati, J. K. (2010). Child malnutrition: trends and issues. The Anthropologist, 12(2), 131-140.

Ijarotimi, O. S. & Keshinro, O. O. (2013). Determination of nutrient composition and protein quality of potential complementary foods formulated from the combination of fermented popcorn, African locust and bambara groundnut seed flour. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 63(3), 155-166.

Iqbal, A., Khalil, I. A., Ateeq, N. & Khan, M. S. (2006). Nutritional quality of important food legumes. Food Chemistry, 97(2), 331-335.

Jayathilake, C., Visvanathan, R., Deen, A., Bangamuwage, R., Jayawardana, B. C., Nammi, S. & Liyanage, R. (2018). Cowpea: an overview on its nutritional facts and health benefits. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture98(13), 4793-4806.

Jiang, S., Cai, W. & Xu, B. (2013). Food quality improvement of soy milk made from short-time germinated soybeans. Foods, 2(2), 198-212.

Joshi, P. & Varma, K. (2016). Effect of germination and dehulling on the nutritive value of soybean. Nutrition & Food Science, 46(4), 595-603.

Kaushik, G., Satya, S. & Naik, S. N. (2010). Effect of domestic processing techniques on the nutritional quality of the soybean. Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 3(1), 39-46.

Kehinde Alawode, E., Idowu, M. A., Adeola, A. A., Oke, E. K. & Omoniyi, S. A. (2017). Some quality attributes of complementary food produced from flour blends of orange flesh sweetpotato, sorghum, and soybean. Croatian journal of food science and technology, 9(2), 122-129.

Kouris-Blazos, A. & Belski, R. (2016). Health benefits of legumes and pulses with a focus on Australian sweet lupins. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition, 25(1), 1-17.

Lopez-Amoros, M. L., Hernandez, T., & Estrella, I. (2006). Effect of germination on legume phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19(4), 277-283.

Masood, T., Shah, H. U., & Zeb, A. (2014). Effect of sprouting time on proximate composition and ascorbic acid level of mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) and chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) seeds. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 24(3), 850-859.

Nonogaki, H., Bassel, G. W., & Bewley, J. D. (2010). Germination—still a mystery. Plant Science, 179(6), 574-581.

Ojiewo, C., Keatinge, D. J., Hughes, J., Tenkouano, A., Nair, R., Varshney, R.,. .. & Silim, S. (2015). The Role of Vegetables and Legumes in Assuring Food, Nutrition, and Income Security for Vulnerable Groups in Sub‐Saharan Africa. World Medical & Health Policy, 7(3), 187-210. .

Olunike, A. A. (2014). Utilization of legumes in the Tropics. J. Biol. Agric. Healthcare, 4(12), 77-84.

Omenna, E. C., Olanipekun, O. T., & Kolade, R. O. (2016). Effect of boiling, pressure cooking and germination on the nutritional and antinutrients content of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). ISABB Journal of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 6(1), 1-8.

Onoja, U. S., Akubor, P. I., Gernar, D. I., and Chinmma, C. E. (2014). Evaluation of complementary food formulated from local staples and fortified with calcium, iron and zinc. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences4(6), 1-6.

Onwuka, G. I. (2005). Food analysis and instrumentation: theory and practice. Naphthalic prints, Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria, 219-230.

Saadi, S., Saari, N., Anwar, F., Abdul Hamid, A., & Ghazali, H. M. (2015). Recent advances in food biopeptides: Production, biological functionalities and therapeutic applications. Biotechnology advances, 33(1), 80-116.

Pataczek, L., Zahir, Z. A., Ahmad, M., Rani, S., Nair, R., Schafleitner, R., ... & Hilger, T. (2018). Beans with benefits—the role of Mungbean (Vigna radiata) in a changing environment. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 9(7), 1577-1560.

Saraf-Bank, S., Esmaillzadeh, A., Faghihimani, E., & Azadbakht, L. (2016). Effects of legume-enriched diet on cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals at risk for diabetes: a crossover study. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 35(1), 31-40. Nutrition, 35(1), 31-40.

Sefatie, R.S, Fatoumata T., Eric K., Sh,i Y.H.,& Guo-wei, L. (2013). In vitro antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysate from germinated black soybean (Glycine max L.). Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 5(4), 453-459.

Suryanti, V., Marliyana, S. D., & Putri, H. E. (2016). Effect of germination on antioxidant activity, total phenolics, β-carotene, ascorbic acid and [alpha]-tocopherol contents of lead tree sprouts (Leucaena leucocephala (lmk.) de Wit). International Food Research Journal, 23(1), 167.

Taussky, H.H., Shorr, E. (1953). A micro colorimetry method for determination of inorganic phosphorous. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 202, 675-685.

Tufa, M.A., Urga, K., Weledesemayat, G.T., & Mitiku, B.G., (2016) Development and Nutritional Assessment of Complementary Foods from Fermented Cereals and Soybean. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 2: 014.

Usman, M. A., Bolade, M. K., & James, S. (2016). Functional properties of weaning food blends from selected sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties and soybean (Glycine max). African Journal of Food Science, 10(8), 112-121.

Veluppillai, S., Nithyanantharajah, K., Vasantharuba, S., Balakumar, S., & Arasaratnam, V. (2009). Biochemical changes associated with germinating rice grains and germination improvement. Rice Science, 16(3), 240-242.

WHO/FAO. (2004). Human vitamin and mineral requirements. Report of a joint FAO /WHO consultation. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO). Rome, Italy.

Wong, S. P., Leong, L. P. & Koh, J. H. W. (2006). Antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts of selected plants. Food Chemistry, 99(4), 775-783.

Xu, B. J. & Chang, S. K. C. (2007). A comparative study on phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of legumes as affected by extraction solvents. Journal of Food Science, 72(2), S159-S166.