Sequential Solvent Extraction of Red-Onion (Allium cepa L) Skin: Influence of Solvent Polarity on Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Activity

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 M. Sc of the Department of Chemistry, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran.

2 Associate Professor of the Department of Chemistry, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor of the Department of Chemical Engineering, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran.

5 M. Sc of the Department of Chemical Engineering, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran.

Abstract

The present study was performed to evaluate the influence of solvent polarity on antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of the extracts of red onion skin. Extracts were obtained using sequential extraction method with various solvents namely ethyl acetate, n-butanol, methanol and water. Ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts demonstrated the highest total phenolic (577.310±9.2 and 441.379±7.3 mg GAE/g extract, respectively) and flavonoids contents (36.188±5.1 and 33.844±4.6 mg QE/g extract, respectively), as well asthe highest antioxidant capacity compared to methanolic and waterextracts through all antioxidant assays.The results showed that all extracts exhibited antioxidant activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities and total flavonoids.The highest DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging were acquired for n-butanol extract.Furthermore, ethyl acetate extract displayed the most reducing power.The results indicated that the components with antioxidant properties in onion skin were extracted in non-polar solvents more than polar solvents.

Keywords


Baratzadeh, M. H., Asoodeh, A. &
Chamani, J. (2013). Antioxidant peptides obtained from goose egg white proteins by enzymatic hydrolysis. Internatianal Journal of Food Science & Technology, 48(8), 1603-1609.
Bharti, R., Ahuja, G., Sujan, G. & Dakappa, S.S. (2012). A review on medicinal plants having antioxidant potential. Journal of Pharmaciutical Research, 5(8), 4278-4287.
Boroomand, N., Sadat-Hosseini, M., Moghbeli, M. & Farajpour, M. (2017). Phytochemical components, total phenol and mineral contents and antioxidant activity of six major medicinal plants from Rayen, Iran. Natural Product Research, 1-4.
Donner, H., Gao, L. & Mazza, G. (1997). Separation and characterization of simple and malonylated anthocyanins in red onions, Allium cepa L. Food Research International, 30(8), 637-643.
Ebrahimzadeh, M. A., Nabavi, S. M., Nabavi, S. F. & Eslami, S. (2010). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of culinary-medicinal mushrooms, golden chanterelle Cantharellus cibarius and Angel's wings Pleurotus porrigens. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 12(3), 265-272.
Ebrahimzadeh, M.A., Safdari, Y. & Khalili, M. (2015). Antioxidant activity of different fractions of methanolic extract of the golden chanterelle mushroom Cantharellus cibarius (higher basidiomycetes) from Iran. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 17(6), 557-565.
Feng, S. S. & Xu, J. G. (2014). Profile of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of different solvent extracts from Rabdosia rubescens. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49(11), 2506–2513.
Galanakis, C., Goulas, V., Tsakona, S., Manganaris, G. & Gekas, V. (2013).  A knowledge base for the recovery of natural phenols with different solvents. International Journal of Food Properties, 16(2), 382-396.
Gorinstein, S., Park, Y.S., Heo, B. G., Namiesnik, J., Leontowicz, H., Leontowicz, M., Ham, K. S., Cho, J. Y. & Kang, S.G. (2009). A comparative study of phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in frequently consumed raw vegetables. European Food Research and Technology, 228(6), 903-911.
Hamid, H. A., Mutazah, R., Yusoff, M. M., Karim, N. A. A. & Razis, A. F. A. (2016). Comparative analysis of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa extracts prepared with various solvents. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 108, 451-457.
Jayaprakasha, G., Girennavar, B. & Patil, B. S. (2008). Radical scavenging activities of Rio Red grapefruits and Sour orange fruit extracts in different in vitro model systems. Bioresource Technology, 99(10), 4484-4494.
Jeong, C. H., Heo, H. J., Choi, S. G. & Shim, K. H. (2009). Antioxidant and anticancer properties of methanolic extracts from different parts of white, yellow, and red onion. Food Science and Biotechnology, 18, 108-112.
Kannan, M., Kumar, T. S. & Rao, M. (2016). Antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of waltheria indica L., an ethnomedicinal plant. International Journal of Pharma Research and Health Sciences, 4(5), 1376-1384.
Katsampa, P., Valsamedou, E., Grigorakis, S. & Makris, D. P. (2015). A green ultrasound-assisted extraction process for the recovery of antioxidant polyphenols and pigments from onion solid wastes using Box–Behnken experimental design and kinetics. Industrial Crops & Products, 77, 535-543.
Khalili, M. & Ebrahimzadeh, M. A. (2015). A review on antioxidants and some of their common evaluation methods. Journal of Mazandaran University Medicinal Sciences, 24(120), 188-208.
Khan, M. A., Rahman, M., Sardar, N., Arman, S.I., Islam, B., Khandakar, J.A., Rashid, M., Sadik, G. & Khurshid Alam, A. H. M.  (2016). Comparative investigation of the free radical scavenging potential and anticancer property of diospyros blancoi (Ebenaceae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 6(5), 410-417.
Kim, S., Kim, D. B., Jin, W., Park, J., Yoon, W., Lee, Y., Kim, S., Lee, S., Kim, S., Lee, O. H., Shin, D. & Yoo, M. (2017). Comparative studies of bioactive organosulphur compounds and antioxidant activities in garlic (Allium sativum L.), elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.). Natural Product Research, 1-5.
Kwak, J. H., Seo J. M., Kim, N. H., Arasu, M. V., Kim, S., Yoon, M. K. & Kim, S. J. (2016). Variation of quercetin glycoside derivatives in three onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties. Saudi Journal of Biological Science, 24(6), 1387-1391.
Li, H., Zhang, D., Tan, L. H., Yu, B., Zhao, S. P. & Cao, W. G. (2017). Comparison of the antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from Dipsacus as periods and identification of phenolic compounds by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS–MS, S.African Journal of Botany, 109, 1–8.
Liu, J., Wang, C., Wang, Z., Zhang, C., Lu, S. & Liu, J. (2011). The antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities of extract and fractions from corn silk (Zea mays L.) and related flavone glycosides. Food Chemistry, 126(1), 261-269.
Mtunzi, F. M., Ejidike, I. P., Ledwaba, I., Ahmed, A., Pakade, V. E., Klink, M. J. & Modise, S. J. (2017). Solvent–solvent fractionations of Combretum erythrophyllum (Burch.) leave extract: Studies of their antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and cytotoxicity potentials. Asian Pacefic Journal of Tropical Medicine, 10(7), 670-679.
Mut-Salud, N., Álvarez, P. J., Garrido, J. M., Carrasco, E., Aránega, A. & Rodríguez-Serrano, F. (2016). Antioxidant intake and antitumor therapy: toward nutritional recommendations for optimal results. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 1-9.
Narkhede, A. & Jagtap, S. (2015). Screening of Amarkand species with respect to their polyphenolic content and free radical quenching potential. International Journal of Pharmacutical Bioscience, 6(1), 1122-1133.
Padhi, M., Mahapatra, S. & Panda, J. (2015). Antibacterial and antioxidant study of different solvent extracts of leaves of argyreia nervosa. Pharma Science Monitor, 6(2), 248-255.
Shan, B., Cai, Y. Z., Sun, M. & Corke, H. (2005). Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 53(20), 7749-7759.
Sharifi, B., Goli, S. A. H. & Maghsoudlou, Y. (2017). Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of the methanolic extract and related fractions of Dracocephalum kotschyi leaves using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Industrial Crops & Products, 104, 111-119.
Škerget, M., Majhenič, L., Bezjak, M. & Knez, Ž. (2009). Antioxidant, radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of red onion (Allium cepa L) skin and edible part extracts. Chemical & Biochemical Engineering Quaterly, 23(4), 435-444.
Ye, C. L., Dai, D. H. & Hu, W.L. (2013). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from onion (Allium cepa L.). Food Control, 30, 48-53.