Antimicrobial Effects of Grape and Pomegranate Waste Extracts against two Foodborne Pathogens

Document Type : Research Paper


Associate Professor of Food Technologies Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Iranian Research Organization for Science & Technology (IROST), Tehran, Iran.


In recent years, increasing in the level of public health consciousness has led to a drastic decrease in the use of synthetic food preservatives. Therefore, there has been a growing demand for novel antimicrobials. Apart from that, finding low cost sources has been always an important issue for food marketers. The present study was designed to investigate in-vitro antibacterial activities of grape and pomegranate waste separately and in combination with broth dilution methods against two bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). The utilized solvent, as an extractant, was hot water. The total phenolic contents of grape and pomegranate wastes were also evaluated. Results revealed that the hot-water extract of the mixed wastes was the most potent, with the MIC / MBC of 52 / 286 mg/ml against E. coli and 75/98 mg/ml against S. aureus. It was also observed that the pomegranate waste contained higher level of phenolic compounds (439±0.82 mg GAE/L) as compared to the grape waste (333.6±1.25 mg GAE/L). It also exhibited higher antibacterial activity (lower MIC and MBC against tested bacteria) than the extract of grape waste. These results suggest that by-products of grape and pomegranate that are inexpensive and available can be employed as a potential source of antibacterial compounds.


Abtahi, H., Ghazavi, A. & Karimi, M. (2011). Antimicrobial activities of ethanol extract of black grape. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5, 4446-4448.
Adamez, J. D., Samino, E. G., Sánchez, E. V. & González-Gómez, D. (2012). In vitro
estimation of the antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts from grape-seeds (Vitis vinifera L.). Food Control, 24(1), 136-141
Al-Nimer, M. S., Rasheed, R. K. & Saadaldin, S. M. J. (2012). Grape Seed Extract Exerts Abhesive Effect Against Staphylococcus aureus: In vitro Study. Research Journal of Microbiology, 7(3), 199.
Al-Zoreky, N. (2009). Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit peels. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 134(3),244-228.
Anon. (2005). Statistical Book of Agricultural of Iran. Iranian Statistical Centre, Tehran, Iran.
Basu, A. & Penugonda, K. (2009). Pomegranate juice: a heart-healthy fruit juice. Nutrition Reviews,67, 49-56.
Baydar, N. G., Sagdic, O., Ozkan, G. & Cetin, S. (2006). Determination of antibacterial effects and total phenolic contents of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed extracts. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 41(7), 799-804.
Braga, L. C., Shupp, J. W., Cummings, C., Jett, M., Takahashi, J. A., Carmo, L. S., Chartone-Souza, E. & Nascimento, A. M. A. (2005). Pomegranate extract inhibits Staphylococcus aureus growth and subsequent. Entero Prod. Journal Ethnopharmacol, 96, 335-339.
Cam, M., Hisil, Y. & Durmaz, D. (2009a). Characterisation of pomegranate juices from ten cultivars grown in Turkey. Journal of Food Protection, 12, 388–395.
Choi, J. G., Kang, O. H., Lee, Y. S., Chae, H. S., Oh, Y. C. & Brice, O. O. (2011). In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of Punica granatum peel ethanol extract against salmonella. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 690518
Ciocan, I. D. & Bara, I. (2007) Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Universitati Ale S¸ tiint¸ ifice Analele Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Tom VIII; 8(1), 151-156.
Cushnie, T.T. & Lamb, A. J. (2005). Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. International journal of antimicrobial agents; 26(5):343-356.
Dai, J. & Mumper, R. J. (2010). Plant phenolics: extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules,15(10), 7313-7352.
Gould, S. W. J., Fielder, M. D., Kelly, A. F. & Naughton, D. P. (2009). Antimicrobial activities of pomegranate rind extracts: enhancement by cupric sulphate against clinical isolates of S. aureus, MRSA and PVL positive CA-MSSA. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 9, 23.
Gruenwald, J., Brendler, B. A. & Jaenicke, C. (2004). PDR for herbal medicines, 3rd ed., Thomson PDR: Montvale, NJ, 234-278.
Guo, C., Wei, J., Yang, J., Xu, J., Pang, W. & Jiang, Y. (2008). Pomegranate juice is potentially better than apple juice in improving antioxidant function in elderly subjects. Nutrition Research, 28, 72-77.
Gyawali, R. & Ibrahim, S. A. (2014). Natural products as antimicrobial agents. Food Control, 46, 412-429
Hamza, R. Z., Abdel-Azez, A. M. & Hussien, N. A. (2015). Evaluation of the antioxidant potential for different extracts of Al-taif pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) 
induced by atrazine and malathion pesticides in liver of male albino mice. International Journal of Pharma Sciences, 7, 89-94.
Jaffer, H., Mahmoud, M., Jawad, A., Naji, A. & Al Naib, A. (1988). Phytochemical and biological screening of some Iraqi plants. Fitoterapia, 59, 229-238.
Jayaprakasha, G. K., Tamil, S. & Sakartah, K. (2003). Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extracts. Food Research International, 36, 117–122.
Kumar, K. A. & Vijayalakshmi, K. (2013). In vitro anti-microbial activity and phytochemical analysis of selected fruit wastes. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied, 2(5), 196-204.
Machado, T., Pinto, A., Pinto, M., Leal, I., Silva, M. & Amaral, A. (2003). In vitro activity of Brazilian medicinal plants, naturally occurring naphthoquinones and their analogues, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Antimicrobial, 21, 279–284.
Mamma, D., Kourtoglou, E. & Christakopoulos, P. (2008). Fungal multienzyme production on industrial by-products of the citrus-processing industry. Bioresource Technology, 99, 2373–2383.
Meerts, I. A. T. M., Verspeek-Rip, C. M., Buskens, C. A. F., Keizer, H. G., Bassaganya-Riera, J. & Jouni, Z. E. (2009). Toxicological evaluation of pomegranate seed oilFood and Chemical Toxicology, 47, 1085-1092.
Neelam, A. & Singh, D. P. (2012). Punica granatum: A review on pharmacological and therapeutic properties. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 3, 1240-1245.
Nitschke, M. & Costa, S. G. V. A. O. (2007). Biosurfactants in food industry. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 18, 252–259
Nuamsetti, T., Dechayuenyong, P. & Tantipaibulvut, S. (2012). Antibacterial activity of pomegranate fruit peels and arils. ScienceAsia, 38, 319-322.
Nwokocha, A., Blessing, A., Agbagwa, I. & Okoli, B. (2011). Comparative phytochemical screening of Jatropha L. Species in the Niger Delta. Research Journal of Phytochemistry, 5(2), 107.
Opara, L. U., Al-Ani, M. R. & Al-Shuaibi, Y. S. (2009). Physico-chemical properties, vitamin C content, and antimicrobial properties of pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.). Food and Bioprocess Technology, 2(3), 315-332.
Pan, Z., Qu, W., Ma, H., Atungulu, G. G. & McHugh, T. H. (2011). Continuous and pulsed ultrasound-assisted extractions of antioxidants from pomegranate peel. Ultras Sonochemistry, 18(5),1249-1257.
Ramadan, H., Min, B., Tiwari, A. K., Reddy, G., Adesiyun, A. & Hinton Jr, A. (2015). Antibacterial Activity of Pomegranate, Orange and Lemon Peel Extracts Against Food-Borne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria in vitro and on Poultry Skin. International Journal of Poultry Science, 14(4), 229-239.
Rhodes, P., Mitchell, J., Wilson, M. & Melton, L. (2006). Antilisterial activity of grape juice and grape extracts derived from Vitis vinifera variety Ribier. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 107(3), 281-286.
Sanchez-Lamar, A., Fonseca, G., Fuentes, J. L., Cozzi, R., Cundrai, E., Fiore, M., Ricordy, R. & Perticone, P. (2008). Assessment of the genotoxic risk of Punicagranatum L (Punicaceae) whole fruit extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 115, 416–422.
Sherikar, A. & Mahanthesh, M. (2015). Evaluation of aqueous and methanolic extract of leaves of Epipremnum aureum for radical scavenging activity by DPPH Method, total phenolic content, reducing capacity assay and FRAP assay. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 4(4), 36-40.
Tehranifar, A., Zarei, M., Nemati, Z., Esfandiyari, B. & Vazifeshenas, M. R. (2010). Investigation of physico-chemical properties and antioxidant activity of twenty Iranian pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae, 126(2), 180-185.
Voravuthikunchai, S., Lortheeranuwat, A., Jeeju, W., Sririrak, T., Phongpaichit, S. & Supawita, T. (2004). Effective medicinal plants against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 94, 49–54