Investigation of the Functional Properties of Whey Powder Produced by Traditional and Ultra-Filtration Cheese Making

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc Graduated of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.

2 Associate professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.


In this research, two types of whey powder from traditional and UF cheese making were compared for structural components and functional properties. The effect of pH on the functional properties of the two whey powders was evaluated. Foam capacity, foam stability, water holding capacity, and emulsifying activity index were the functional characteristics that were evaluated in different pH values for two whey powder. The whey powder obtained from the traditional cheese-making compared to whey powder by UF cheese-making showed a higher percentage in terms of protein, fat, lactose, and salts, as well as the foam capacity, water holding capacity, and emulsion activity index of whey powder obtained from the traditional cheese-making was significantly (P < 0.05) more than whey powder obtained from UF cheese-making. However, the foam stability of these two powders did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05). This study shows that the higher quality of whey powder produced in the traditional cheese making as compared to whey powder produced by the UF cheese making can compensate for the lower traditional cheese production efficiency compared to UF cheese.


Anon, (2007). ISIRI, Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Milk and its products (raw milk and test methods), Standard No. 164.
Banavara, D., Anupama, D. & Rankin, S. (2003). Studies on physicochemical and functional properties of commercial sweet whey powders. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 3866-3875.
Beuchat, L. R. (1977). Functional and electrophoretic characteristics of succinylated peanut flour protein. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 25, 258-261.
Casper, J., Wendorff, W. & Thomas, D. (1999). Functional properties of whey protein concentrates from caprine and ovine specialty cheese wheys. Journal of Dairy Science, 82, 265-271.
Cayot, P. & Lorient, D. (2017). Structure-function relationships of whey proteins. In book” Food Proteins and their Applications”. The first edition. CRC Press. PP: 32
Damodaran, S. (2005). Protein stabilization of emulsions and foams. Journal of Food Science, 70, 54-66.
Dickinson, E. (1986). Competitive protein adsorption. Food Hydrocollois, 1, 3-23.
Edwards, P. J. B. & Jameson, G. B. (2014). Structure and Stability of Whey Proteins. In: Singh, H., Boland, M. & Thompson, A., ed. Food Proteins: From Expression to Food. 2 ed., New York: Academic Press.
Hudson, H., Daubert, C. & Foegeding, E. (2000). Rheological and physical properties of derivitized whey protein isolate powders. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 3112-3119.
Huffman, L. M. (1996). Processing whey protein for use as a food ingredient. Food Technology, 50, 49-52.
Huffman, L. M. & de Barros Ferreira, L. (2011). Whey-based Ingredients. In: C. Chandan R, Kilara A (Ed.). Dairy Ingredients for Food Processing, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, pp: 179-198.
Ikeda, S. & Morris, V. J. (2002). Fine-stranded and particulate aggregates of heat-denatured whey proteins visualized by atomic force microscopy. Biomacromolecules, 3, 382-389.
Kamman, M. (1997). The new making of a cook: The art, techniques, and science of good cooking. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 280 p.
Klemaszewski, J. L., Das, K. P. & Kinsella, J. E. (1992). Formation and coalescence stability of emulsions stabilized by different milk proteins. Journal of Food Science, 57, 361-377.
Kosikowski, F. V. (1979). Whey utilization and whey products. Journal of Dairy Science, 62, 1149-1160.
Kumar, S. K., Shinde, G., Subramanian V. & Nadanasabapathi, S. (2018). Whey Proteins: A potential ingredient for food industry- A review. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research, 37, 4, 283-290.
Li-Chan, E. & Nakai, S. (1989). Biochemical basis for the properties of egg white. University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, B.C., Canada, Critical reviews in poultry biology (USA).
Mangino, M. E. (1984). Physico-chemical basis of whey protein functionality. Journal of Dairy Science, 67, 2711-2722.
Manoi, K. & Rizvi, S. S. (2008). Rheological characterizations of texturized whey protein concentrate-based powders produced by reactive supercritical fluid extrusion. Food Research International, 41, 786-796.
Mishra, S., Mann, B. & Joshi, V. (2001). Functional improvement of whey protein concentrate on interaction with pectin. Food Hydrocolloids, 15, 9-15.
Nakamura, R. & Sato, Y. (1964). Studies on the foaming properties of chicken egg white. X . On the role of ovomucin (B) in the egg white foaminess. The mechanism of
foaminess (2). Agricultural Biology and Chemisry, 28, 530-535.
Onwulata, C., Isobe, S., Tomasula, P. & Cooke, P. (2006). Properties of whey protein isolates extruded under acidic and alkaline conditions. Journal of Dairy Science, 89, 71-81.
Patel, M. T. & Kilara, A. (1990). Studies on whey protein concentrates, Foaming and emulsifying properties and their relationships with physicochemical properties. Journal of Dairy Science, 73, 2731-2740.
Phillips, L. G., Whitehead, D. M. & Kinsella, J. E. (1994). Structure function properties of food proteins. San Diego: Academic Press, 551 p.
Prins, A., Bos, M., Boerboom, F. J. G. & van Kalsbeek, H. K. A. I. (1998). Relation between surface rheology and foaming behaviour of aqueous protein solutions. Proteins at liquid interfaces, Amesterdam: Elsevier Science, pp, 221-266.
Richert, S. H. (1979). Physicochemical properties of whey protein foams. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 27, 655.
Santos, M. B., da Costa, N. R. & Garcia Rojas, E. E. (2018). Interpolymeric complexes formed between whey proteins and biopolymers: Delivery systems of bioactive ingredients. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 17, 792-805. Sinha, R., Radha, C., Prakash, J. & Kaul, P. (2007). Whey protein hydrolysate: Functional properties, nutritional quality and utilization in beverage formulation. Food Chemistry, 101, 1484-1491.
Singh, H. (2011). Functional Properties of Milk Proteins. In: Fuquay, J.W., Fox, P.F., McSweeney, P.L.H. (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Dairy Science. 2 ed., London: Academic Press, pp, 887-893.
Sanmartín, B., Díaz, O., Rodríguez-Turienzo, L. & Cobos, A. (2013). Functional properties of caprine whey protein concentrates obtained from clarified cheese whey. Small Ruminant Research, 110, 52-56.
Sun, C., Liu, R., Liang, B., Wu, T., Sui, W. & Zhang, M. (2018). Microparticulated whey protein-pectin complex: A texture-controllable gel for low-fat mayonnaise. Food Research International, 108, 151-160.
Taheri, A., Anvar, S. A. A., Ahari H. & Fogliano, V. (2013). Comparison the functional properties of protein Hydrolysates from poultry byproducts and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) viscera. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 12, 154-169.
Walstra, P., Geurts, T. J., Noomen, A., Jellema, A. & van Boekel, M. A. J. S. (1999). Protein Preparations. Dairy Technology, New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., pp: 471-483.
Whitaker, J. R. (1977). Denaturation and renaturation of proteins. In: Whitaker, J.R. & Tannenbaum, S.R., (Ed.). Food Proteins, Westport, CT: AVI Publishing Co. Inc., pp: 1-49.
Wilde, P. J. & Clark, D. C. (1996). Foam formation and stability. Methods of testing protein functionality, London: Blackie Academic, pp: 110-152.
Zayas, J. F. (1997). Functionality of proteins in food. Berlin: Springer, 351 p.