Optimization of Thymol Extraction from Aerial Parts of Thymus vulgaris by the Response Surface Method

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 MSc Graduated of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Thyme is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry as an antimicrobial and antioxidant aromatic component, mainly due to its essential oil composition especially the presence of Thymol. In this research, the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris collected from Hamedan was obtained by hydro-distillation method. The response surface method was employed to determine the optimal values of the evaluated factors. The proposed optimal conditions were 1.5 to 2.5 hours for 60 to 80 grams of sample per 100 ml. The optimum extraction time of essential oil from the aerial parts and leaves of thyme were 2.5 hours for 77.63 grams and 2.5 hours for 64.66 grams per 100 ml respectively. The results of experiments in optimum conditions showed that the highest amount of Thymol was found in the essential oil obtained from aerial parts of thyme.

Keywords


Aghamohammadi, A., Azadbakht, M. & Hosseinimehr, S. J. (2016). Quantification of Thymol content in different extracts of Zataria multiflora by HPLC method. Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research, 2 (1), 8-13. Aydar, A. Y. (2018). Utilization of Response Surface Methodology in Optimization of Extraction of Plant Materials. 157-169
Davazdahemami, S. & Majnoonhosini, N. (2008). Cultivation and Production of Certain Herbs and Species. Tehran University publications, pp 300.
Dhifi, W., Bellili, S., Jazi, S., Bahloul, N. & Mnif, W. (2016). Essential oils’ chemical characterization and investigation of some biological activities: A Critical Review. Medicines, 3 (25), 1-16.
Escobar, A., Pe´rez, M., Romanelli, G. & Blustein, G. (2020). Thymol bioactivity: A review focusing on practical applications. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 13, 9243–9269.
Jannati, N., Honarvar, M. & Gharachorloo, M. (2021). Extraction of
Thymol Compound from Thymus vulgaris L. Oil. Journal of Medicinal Plants and By-products, 1, 81-84.
Kashiri, M., Maghsoudlou, Y. & Khomeiri, M. (2016). Release of antimicrobial components of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil from bio active zein film into food simulants. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 32 (2), 322-332.
Kowalczyk, A., Przychodna, M., Sopata, S., Bodalska, A. & Fecka, I. (2020). Thymol and Thyme Essential Oil—New Insights into Selected Therapeutic Applications. Molecules, 25(18), 4125.
Leung, A. Y. & Foster, S. (1996). Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients: used in food, drugs, and cosmetics. A Wiley Inter Science Publication - John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Momeni, T K. & Shahrokhi, N. (1991). Herbal essentials and their therapeutic effects. Tehran university publications, pp 12-18 [In Persian].
Meshkatalsadat, M., Rabiei. K. & Shabaninejad, Y. (2013). Chemical characterization of volatile oils of different parts of Satureja bachtarica Bunge. Journal of Advances in Chemistry, 5(2), 678-684.
Mnayer, D., Fabiano-Tixier, A. S., Petitcolas, E., Ruiz, K., Hamieh, T. & Chemat, F. (2017). Extraction of green absolute from thyme using ultrasound and sunflower oil. Resource-Efficient Technologies, 3, 12–21.
Naghdi Badi, H., Yazdani, D., Nazari, F. & Mohammad Ali, S. (2003). Seasonal variation in oil yield and composition from Thymus vulgaris L. under different dense cultivation. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 1(5), 51-56.
Nickavar, B., Mojab, B. F. & Dolat-Abadi, R. (2005). Analysis of the essential oils of two Thymus species from Iran. Food Chemistry, 90, 609- 911.
Sharafzadeh, Sh. & Alizadeh, O. (2012).
Some Medicinal Plants Cultivated in Iran, Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2 (1), 134-137.