Studies on Physicochemical and Structural Properties of Marshmallow (Althaea Officinalis) Seed Mucilage

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 MSc of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran,

2 Associate Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran,

3 Associate Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Varamin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran,

4 Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

5 PhD in Food Science, Food and Drug Administration, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) belonging to Malvaceae family possesses mucilage containing cells in stem, petiole, petals and seeds showing antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory effects among others. In this study, in order to determine the characteristics of marshmallow seed mucilage, as a potential new source of hydrocolloid, some instrument methods (Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, etc.) were used and viscosity of mucilage was determined. SEM analysis showed that the mucilage had an amorphous structure and disordered particle size. Mucilage solution at pH of 7 had negative charge; zeta potential of -22.4 mV, electrical conductivity of -1.753 mS /cm and particle size being 255.1 d.nm. Its glass transition temperature (Tg) was 37.9 °C and the melting process started at 34.3 °C to 182.2 °C. An endothermal peak was observed at 92.6°C. Heat of infusion was 199.19 J/g. The most important functional groups identified by FTIR were an asymmetric stretching of double-bond (C=0) in the deprotonated carboxylated groups at 14.3 and 1627 cm-1 vibratory stretching ring of pyranose at 1280 cm-1 and 1115 cm-1 as well as glycoside bonds at 617 and 780 cm-1. Marshmallow seed mucilage solution showed a shear–thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior and the most predominant elements found in the mucilage were carbon (26.59%), potassium (26.39%).

Keywords


Acedo-Carrilloa, J. I., Rosas-Durazoa, A., Herrera-Urbinac, R., Rinaudod, M., Goycooleab, F. M. & Valdeza, M. A. (2006). Zeta potential and drop growth of oil in water emulsions stabilized with mesquite gum. Carbohydrate Polymers, 65, 327–336.
Baxter, A., Dillon, M., Taylor, K. D. A. & Roberts, G.A.F. (1992). Improved method for it determination of the degree of N-acetylation of chitosan. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 14,166–169.
Bramhachari, P. V., Kishor, P. B. K., Devi, R. R., Kumar, R., Rao, B. R. & Dubey, S.K. (2007). Isolation and characterization of mucous exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Vibrio furnissii strain VB0S3. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 17, 44–51.
Capek, P., Oman, R., Kardosov, A. & Rosik, J. (1983). Polysaccharides from the roots of the marshmallow (Althea offcinalis L.): structure of an Arabian. Carbohydrate Research. 117, 133-140.
Chen, H.H., Xu, S.Y. & Wang, Z. (2006). Gelation properties of flaxseed gum. Journal of Food Engineering. 77, 295–303.
Elmastas, M., Ozturk, L., Gokce, I., Erenler, R. & Aboul- Enein, H.Y. (2004). Detremination of antioxidant activity of Marshmallow flower (Althaea officinalis). Analaticals Letters, 37, 1859-1869.
Farahnaky, A., Bakhshizadeh-Shirazi, S. H., Mesbahi, G. H., Majzoobi, M., Rezvani, E. & Schleining, G. (2013). Ultrasound-assisted isolation of mucilaginous hydrocolloids from Salvia macrosiphon seeds and studying their functional properties. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. 20, 182-190.
Glicksman, M. (1982). Food Hydrocolloids, Vol 1, 2 and 3, FL: CRC Press Inc.
Höne, G. W. H., Hemminger, W. & Flammersheim, H. F. (1996). Differential scanning calorimetry: An introduction for
practitioners. (2nd. Ed.). New York.
Hamcerencu, M., Desbrieres, J., Khoukh, A., Popa, M. & Riess, G. (2008). Synthesis and characterization of new unsaturated esters of Gellan Gum. Carbohydrate Polymers. 71, 92-100.
Haines, P. J., Reading, M. & Wilburn, F. W. (1998). Differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. In Brown ME (ed): Handbook of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol 1. The Netherlands: Elsevier Science BV. 279 –361
Iwe, M. O., Obaje, P. O. & Akpapunam, M. A. (2004). Physicochemical properties of Cissus gum powder extracted with the aid of edible starches. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 59, 161–168.
Jindal, M., Kumar, V., Rana, V. & Tiwary, A.K. (2013). Physico–chemical, mechanical and electrical performance of bael fruit gumechitosan IPN films. Food Hydrocolloids. 30,192-199.
Kulkarni, G. T., Gowthamarajan, K., Dhobe, R. R., Yohanan, F. & Suresh, B. (2005). Development of controlled release spheriods using natural polysaccharide as release modifier. Drug Delivery. 12, 201-206
Kardosava, A. & Machova, E. (2006). Antioxidant activity of medicinal plant polysaccharides. Fitoterapia. 77367-73.
Mathot V. B. F. (1994). Calorimetry and thermal analysis of polymers. Journal of Thermal Analysis. 45, 577–578.
Maglic, K. D., Cezairliyau, V. E. & Peletsky, P. (1984). Compendium of thermophysical property measurment methods. (Vol. 1). New York: Plumen Press.
Mathur, P., Saroha, K., Syan, N., Verma, S., Nanda, S. & Valecha, V. (2011). An overview on recent advancements and developments in gastroretentive buoyant drug delivery system. Pelagia Research Library. 2: 161-169.
Moafeghy, A. (1992). Isolation and determination of mucilage polysaccharides from plantagoes with tissue and farming cultivated. MSc. Thesis, School of science, Tehran University.
Mhaskar, K. S., Blatter, E. & Caius, J. F. (2000). Kirtikar and Basu’s illustrated Indian
medicinal plants. 2,405–407. Delhi: Sri Satguru Publication.
Niknam, V. (1999). Identification of secondary metabolits (N- aliphatic composition, mucilage polyssacharides, saponines, sterols, phenolic compositions) PH.D. Thesis, School of science, Tehran University.
Nep, E. I. & Conway B. R. (2010). Characterization of Grewia Gum, a potential pharmaceutical excipient. Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals. 1, 30–40.
Qi, W. & Cui, S. W. (2005). Understanding the physical properties of food polysaccharides. In: Cui SW, editor. Food Carbohydrates: Chemistry, Physical Properties, and Applications. 3 rd ed. Boca Raton, Florida: Taylor and Francis; 161-262.
Qian, J., Chen, W., Zhang, W. & Zhang, H. (2009). Adulteration identification of some fungal polysaccharides with SEM, XRD, IR and optical rotation: a primary approach. Carbohydrate Polymers. 78, 620-625.
Singh, S. & Bothara, B. S. (2014). Physico-chemical and structural characterization of mucilage isolated from seeds of Diospyros melonoxylon Roxb. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 50, 713- 720.
Stopic, S. R., Ilic, I. E. & Uskokovic, O. P. (1997). Effect of Pd, Cu, and Ni additions on the kinetics of NiCl2 reduction by hydrogen. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. 28, 1241–1248.
Sahoo, N., Manchikanti, P. & Dey, S. (2010). Herbal drugs: standards and regulation. Fitoterapia. 81, 462–471.
Skoog, D. A., Holler, F. J., Crouch, S. R. (2011). Instrumental Analysis. India edition: Cengage Learning. 982-984
Wang, Q. I., Ellis, P. R. & Ross-Murphy, S. B. (2002). Dissolution kinetics of guar gum powders - 1. Methods for commercial poly-disperse samples. Carbohydrate Polymers. 49,131- 137.
Wang, J., Feng, S., Wang, S. & Chen, Z. (2010). Evaluation of cationic nanoparticles of biodegradable copolymers as siRNA delivery system for hepatitis B treatment. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 400, 194–200.
Wang, Q., Ellis, P. R. & Ross-Murphy, S.B. (2003). Dissolution kinetics of guar gum powders—II. Effects of concentration and molecular weight. Carbohydrate Polymers. 53, 75–83.
Wang, Q. I., Ellis, P. R. & Ross-Murphy, S. B. (2006). Dissolution kinetics of guar gum powders - 3. Effect of particle size. Carbohydrate Polymers. 64, 239-246,
Zatz, J. L. & Kushla, G. P. (1989). In: pharmaceutical dosage Forms-Disperse systems, M. M. Reiger and G.S. Banker, Ed; Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 2, 508.