Determination of Adulterated Ghee Butter Compositions by FTIR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Regression Analysis

Document Type : Research Paper


Assistant Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur, Iran.


The authentication of luxury oils is an important issue. Ghee is a famous traditional dairy product that likely to be adulterated with the other oils and fats specially the hydrogenated vegetable oils. Recently, Fourier transforminfrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy accompanying with chemometric techniques (partial least square) were introduced for validation of different oil quality. In the present study, IR spectra of pure ghee and three partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (soya bean oil, canola and sunflower oils) along with mixtures of different amounts of vegetable oils with ghee (10, 20 and 30%) were investigated. Partial Least Squares (PLS) model correlates the actual and FT-IR predicted values of oil adulterants where coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.986, 0.997 and 0.991 for soya bean oil, canola oil and sunflower, respectively. The resulted RMS%RE values of soya bean oil, canola and sunflower oils are 0.94% and 1.192 and 2.54%, respectively. The method could be a rapid and precise alternative for identification of adulterated ghee.


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