Investigation of Rheological Behavior of Malva Flower Mucilage Under Different Temperature, Concentration and Shear Rate Conditions

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran.

2 Associate Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran.

3 Associate Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Varamin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran.

4 Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

5 PhD in Food Science, Food and Drug Administration, Tehran, Iran.


Hydrocolloids, playing different roles including thickening, stabilizing, gelling and improving texture of foods are among additives widely used for improvement of quality in food industry. Recently, demand for hydrocolloids with special functional properties has grown, therefore, finding new sources of gums with proper attributes is of enormous importance. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effect of variables including temperature (30-80°C), concentration (5-9%) and shear rate (0.1-1000 s-1) on apparent viscosity and flow behavior of malva flower mucilage solution. The results showed that malva flower mucilage was rheologically pseudoplastic with this behavior being enhanced at higher concentrations (<n). The effect of temperature and concentration on flow index and consistency coefficient was also significant (p≤0.05). At low concentrations, power law model and at high concentrations, casson and bingham models best fitted with mucilage solution. Also mucilage solution at 5% and 9% concentrations showed the lowest and the highest temperature dependency, respectively.


Anvaria, M.,  Tabarsa, M.,  Cao, R.,  You, S.,   Joyner, H. S.,  Behnamd, S. H. &  Rezaei, M. (2016). Compositional characterization and rheological properties of an anionic gum from Alyssum homolocarpum seeds, Food Hydrocolloids,  52,  766-773.
Barnes, H. A. (2008). Handbook of Elementary Rheology.Translated by Abbasi S. Tehran: Marzedanesh Publications. [In Persian]
Bohdanecky, M. & Kovar, J. (1982). Viscosity of polymer solutions. Elsevier Scientific Publishing CompanyAmsterdam.
Chinnan, M. S., McWaters, K. H., & Rao, V. N. M. (1985). Rheological characterization of grain legume pastes and effect of hydration time and water level on apparent viscosity. Journal of Food Science, 50, 1167-1171.
Farahnaky, A., Bakhshizadeh-Shirazi, S. H., Mesbahi, G. H., Majzoobi, M., Rezvani, E. & Schleining, G. (2013). Ultrasound-assisted isolation of mucilaginous hydrocolloids from Salvia macrosiphon seeds and studying their functional properties. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 20, 182-190.
Farhoosh, R. & Riazi, A. (2007). A compositional study on two current types of salep in Iran and their rheological properties as a function of concentration and temperature. Food Hydrocolloids, 21, 660-666.
Feng, T., Gu, Z. B. & Jin, Z. Y. (2007). Chemical composition and some rheological properties of Mesona Blumes gum. Food Science and Technology International, 13, 55–61.
Gomez-Diaz, D. & Navaza, J. M. (2003). Rheology of aqueous solutions of food additives effect of concentration, temperature and blending. Journal of Food Engineering, 56, 387–392.
Hamza-Chaffai, A. (1990). Effect of manufacturing condition on rheology of banana gellifiedmilk: optimization of the technology. Journal of Food Science, 55, 1630–1633.
Huei Chen, R. & Yuu Chen, W.  (2001). Rheological properties of the water-soluble mucilage of a green laver, Monostroma nitidium. Journal of Applied Phycology,13, 481-488.
Imeson, A. (2010). Food stabilizers, Thickeners and gelling agents. Willey-Blackwell. 
Kayacier, A. & Dogan, M. (2006). Rheological properties of some gums-salep mixed solutions. Journal of Food Engineering,72, 261–265.
Khandari, P., Gill, B. S. & Sodhi, N. S. (2002). Effect of concentration and temperature on the rheology of mango pulp. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 39, 152–154.
Koocheki, A., Mortazavi, S. A., Shahidi, F., Razavi, S. M. A. & Taherian, A. R. (2009). Rheological properties of mucilage extracted from Alyssum homolocarpum seed as a new source of thickening agent. Journal of Food Engineering, 91, 490–496.
Koocheki, A., Taherian, A. R., Razavi, S. M. A. & Bostan, A.
(2009). Response surface methodology for optimization of extraction yield, viscosity, hue and emulsion stability of mucilage extracted from Lepidium perfoliatum seeds. Food Hydrocolloids, 23, 2369–2379.
Lapasin, R. & Pricl, S. (1995). Industrial applications of polysaccharide. Rheology of industrial polysaccharides theory and application. Carbohydrate Research, 276. C t -C4
Lin, H. & Huang, A. S. (1993). Chemical Composition and some physical properties of a water-soluble gum in taro (Colocasia esculenta). Food Chemistry, 48, 403–409.
Ma, J., Lin, Y., Chen, X., Zhao, B. & Zhang, J. (2014).  Flow behavior, thixotropy and dynamical viscoelasticity of sodium alginate aqueous solutions. Food Hydrocolloids, 38, 119–128.
Mandala, I. G., Savvas. T. P. & Kostarroopulos. A. E.  (2004). Xanthan and locust bean gum influence on the rheology and structure of a white model–sauce. Journal of Food Engineering, 64, 335-342.
Marcotte, M., Taherian Hoshahili, A. R. & Ramaswamy, H. S. (2001a). Rheological properties of selected hydrocolloids as a function of concentration and temperature, Food Research International, 34, 695-703.
Marcotte, M., Taherian Hoshahili, A. R., Trigui, M. & Ramaswamy, H. S. (2001 b). Evaluation of rheological properties of selected salt enriched food Hydrocolloids. Journal of Food Engineering, 48, 157-167.
Maskan, M. & Gogus, F. (2000). Effect of sugar on the rheological properties of sunflower oil–water emulsions. Journal of Food Engineering, 43, 173–177.
Medina-Torres, L., Brito-De La Fuente, E., Torrestiana–Sanchez, B. & Katthain, R. (2000).  Rheological properties of the mucilage gum (Opuntia ficus indica). Food Hydrocolloids, 14, 417–424.
Naji, S., Razavi, S. M. A. & Karazhiyan, H. (2012).  The effect of heating and freezing of treatments on the time- independent rheological properties of cress seed and xanthan gums. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 1, 37-45. [In Persian]
Nielsen, L. E. (1977). Polymer Rheology, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.
Rao, M. A. & Keney, J. F. (1975). Flow properties of selected food gums. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, 8, 142-148.
Rincón, F., Muñoz, J., Léon de Pinto, G., Alfaro, M. C. & Calero, N. (2009). Rheological properties of Cedrela odorata gum exudate aqueous dispersions. Food Hydrocolloids, 23, 1031–1037.
Sengul, M., Ertugay, M. F. & Sengul, M. (2005). Rheological, physical and chemical characteristics of mulberry pekmez. Food Control, 16, 73–76.
Shale, T. L., Stirk, W. A. & Staden, J. V. (2005). Variation in antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of different growth forms of Malva parviflora and evidence for synergism of the anti-inflammatory compounds, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 96, 325–330.
Speers, R. A. & Tung, M. A. (1986). Concentration and temperature dependence of flow behaviour of xanthan gum dispersions. Journal of Food Science, 51, 96–98.
Steffe, J. F. (1996). Rheological Methods in Food Process Engineering. 2nd ed. Michigan: Freeman Press.
Sworn, G. & Phillips, P. A. (2000). Handbook of hydrocolloids. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited. 103–116.
Tada, T., Matsumoto, T. & Masuda, T. (1998). Structure of molecular association of curdlan at dilute regime in alkaline aqueous systems. Chemical Physics, 228, 157–166.
Taherian, A. R., Fustier, P. & Ramaswamy, H. S. (2007). Effects of added weighting agent and xanthan gum on stability and rheological properties of beverage cloud emulsions formulated using modified starch. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 30, 204-224.
Tan, C. T. (1990). Beverage emulsions. In K. Larsson & S. E. Friberg, Food emulsions (2nd ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker. 445-478.
Turian, R. M. (1964). Thermal phenomena and non-Newtonian viscometry. Ph. D. Thesis.Madison: University of Wisconsin.
Vardhanabhuti, B. & Ikeda, S. (2006). Isolation and characterization of hydrocolloids from monoi (Cissampelos pareira) leaves. Food Hydrocolloids, 20, 885-891.
Wang, Y., Li, D., Wang, L. J. & Adhikari, B. (2011). The effect of addition of flaxseed gum on the emulsion properties of soybean protein isolate (SPI). Journal of Food Engineering, 104, 56-62.
Wichtl, M.  (1994).  Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Translated by: Bisset NG,Boca Raton: CRC Press, 292 - 294, 313 -314.
Williams, P. A. & Phillips, G. O. (2000). Introduction to food hydrocolloids. In: G.O. Phillips, & P. A. Williams (Eds.), Handbook of Hydrocolloids. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing.
Wu, Y., Cui, W., Eskin, N. A. M. & Goff, H. D. (2009). Fractionation and partial characterization of non-pectic polysaccharides from yellow mustard mucilage. Food Hydrocolloids, 23, 1535–1541.