Comparative Analysis of Butter spectra of FTIR and NMR in Combination with Tallow

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Professor of the Department of Food, Halal and Agricultural Products, Food Technology and Agricultural Products Research Center, Standard Research Institute (SRI), Karaj, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor of Food Science, Iranian Standard Organization, Arak, Iran.



Butter is the product of milk fat, sometimes adulterations occurs with low-cost animal fat, which affects food safety and quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the authenticity of butter in combination with bovine tallow (0-15% w/w) using FTIR and NMR methods. These studies have shown that by adding bovine tallow fat, there was a significant difference on peaks height in FTIR and value of NMR peaks. According to the statistical analysis obtained, L_Pseudo equations showed that in the FTIR spectra of 3473-3470, 723-720, 590-587 and 458-455 cm-1, by increase in bovine tallow percentage, the height of these spectra was decreased. L_Pseudo equations for each 1H NMR and 13C NMR peak indicated that value (ppm) of these peaks decreased by increase percentage of tallow. Given value of R2, it was found that none of the spectra were capable of estimating the presence of foreign fat. 


Aigster, A., Sims, C., Staples, C., Schmidt, R. & O’keefe, S. F. (2000). Comparison of cheeses made from milk having normal and high oleic fatty acid compositions. Journal of Food Science, 65, 920-924.
Andreotti, G., Trivellone, E., Lamanna, R., Di Luccia, A. & Motta, A. (2000). Milk identification of different species: 13C-NMR spectroscopy of triacylglycerols from cows and buffaloes’ milks. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 2432-2437.
Argyri, A. A., Panagou, E. Z., Tarantilis, P. A., Polysiouand, M. & Nychas, G. J. E. (2010). Rapid qualitative and quantitative detection of beef fillets spoilage based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data and artificial neural networks. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 145, 146-154.
Aursand, M., Standal, I. B. & Axelson, D. E. (2007). High-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy pattern recognition of fish oil capsules. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 55, 38-47.
Bertellia, D., Plessia, M., Sabatini, A. G., Lollia, M. & Grillenzoni, F. (2007). Classification of Italian honeys next term by mid-previous terminfrarednext term diffuse reflectance previous termspectroscopynext term (DRIFTS). Food Chemistry, 101, 1565-1570.
Brescia, M. A., Mazzilli, V., Sgaramella, A., Ghelli, S., Fanizzi, F. P. & Sacco, A. (2004). 1H NMR characterization between cow and buffalo milk. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 81, 431-436.

Chakrabarty, M. M., Bhattacharyya, D. & Gayen, K. (1969). Detection of adulteration of butter fat (ghee) by the random rearrangement reaction and thin-layer chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 44, 116-127.

Cuibus, L., Maggio, R., Mureșan, V., Diaconeasa, Z. & Socaciu, C. (2015). Preliminary discrimination of cheese adulteration by FT-IR spectroscopy. Bulletin UASVM Food Science and Technology, 72, 142-146.
Erich, S., Schill, S., Annweiler, E., Waiblinger, H. U., Kuballa, T., Lachenmeier, D. W. & Monakhova, Y. B. (2015). Combined chemometric analysis of 1H-NMR, 13C NMR and stable isotope data to differentiate organic and conventional milk. Food Chemistry, 188, 1-7.
Gori, A., Cevoli, C., Fabbri, A., Caboni, M. F. & Losi, G. (2012). A rapid method to discriminate season of production and feeding regimen of butters based on infrared spectroscopy and artificial neural networks. Journal of Food Engineering, 109, 525-530.
Guillen, M. D. & Cabo, N. (1997). Infrared spectroscopy in the study of edible oils and fats. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 75, 1-11.
Guillén, M. D. & Ruiz, A. (2001). High resolution 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance in the study of edible oils and fats. Trends Food Science and Technology, 12, 328-338.
Hillbrick, G. & Augustin, M. A. (2002). Milk fat characteristics and functionality: Opportunities for improvement. Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 57, 45-51.
Hu, F., Furihata, K., Kato, Y. & Tanokura, M. (2007). Nondestructive quantification of organic compounds in whole milk without pretreatment by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 4307-4311.
Javidnia, K., Parish, M., Karimi, S. & Hemmateenejad, B. (2013). Discrimination of edible oils and fats by combination of multivariate pattern recognition and FT-IR spectroscopy: A comparative study between different modeling methods. Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy,104, 175-181.
Karoui, R. & De Baerdemaeker, J. (2007). A review of the analytical methods coupled with chemometric tools for the determination of the quality and identity of dairy products. Food Chemistry, 102, 621-640.
Koca, N., Kocaoglu-Vurma, N. A., Harper, W. J. & Rodriguez-Saona, L. E. (2010). Application of temperature-controlled attenuated total reflectance-midinfrared (ATR-MIR) spectroscopy for rapid estimation of butter adulteration. Food Chemistry,121, 778-782.
Lee, V. S., Tue-Ngeun, P., Traisathit, p., Prasitwattanaseree, S., Nimmanpipug, P. & Chaijaruwanich, J. (2009). FTIR and chemometric tools for the classification of Thai wines. International Journal of Science and Technology, 3, 446-458.
Lerma-García, M. J., Gori, A., Cerretani, L., Simó-Alfonso, E. F. & Caboni, M. F. (2010). Classification of Pecorino cheeses produced in Italy according to their ripening time and manufacturing technique using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Dairy Science, 93, 4490-4496.
Lipp, M. (1995). Review of methods for the analysis of triglycerides in milk fat: Application for studies of milk quality and adulteration. Food Chemistry, 54, 213-221.
Maggio, R. M., Kaufman, T. S., Carlo, M. Del, Cerretani, L., Bendini, A., Cichelli, A. & Compagnone, D. (2009). Monitoring of fatty acid composition in virgin olive oil by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares. Food Chemistry, 114, 1549-1554.
Miyake, T., Watanabe, K., Watanabe, T. & Oyaizu, H. (1998). Phylogenetic analysis of the genus bifidobacterium and related genera based on 16S rDNA sequences. Microbiology Immunology,  42, 661-667.
Molly, W.C. (2008). NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils. Journal of Chemical Education, 85, 1550-1554.
Monakhova, Y. B., Kuballa, T., Leitz, J., Andlauer, C. & Lachenmeier, D. W. (2012). NMR spectroscopy as a screening tool to validate nutrition labeling of milk, lactose-free milk, and milk substitutes based on soy and grains. Dairy Science and Technology, 92, 109-120.
Monakhova, Y. B., Godelmann, R., Andlauer, C., Kuballa, T. & Lachenmeier, D. W. (2013). Identification of imitation cheese and imitation ice cream based on vegetable fat using NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics. International Journal of Food Science, ID 367841, 1-9.

Muik, B., Lendl, B., Molina-Diaz, A., Valcarcel, M. & Ayora-Canada, M. J. (2007). Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution for the study of lipid oxidation in edible oils monitored by FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Analytica Chimica Acta,  593, 54-67.

Nilchian, Z., Ehsani, M. R., Piravi-Vanak, Z. & Bakhoda, H. (2020). Determination of bovine tallow in butter using a comprehensive method. Grasas y Aceites, 71, 338.
Nurrulhidayah, A. F., Che Man, Y. B., Rohman, A., Ismail, A., Mustafa, S. & Khatib, A. (2013a). Authentication analysis of butter from beef fat using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics. International Food Research Journal, 20, 1383-1388.
Nurrulhidayah, A. F., Rohman, A., Ismail, A., Mustafa, S. & Khatib, A. (2013b). Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis for rapid estimation of butter adulteration. Journal of Oleo Science, 62, 555-562.
Nurrulhidayah, A. F., Rohman, A., Rosman, A. S.,  Ismail, A., Mustafa, S., Farahwahida, M. Y., Rashidi, O., Mohammad Aizat, A. & Khatib, A. (2017). Authentication of butter from lard adulteration using high-resolution of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography. International Journal of Food Properties, 20, 2147-2156.
Rodriguez-Saona, L. E., Koca, N., Harper, W. J. & Alvarez, V. B. (2006). Rapid determination of Swiss cheese composition by fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. Journal of Dairy Science, 89, 1407-1412.
Subramanian, A. & Rodriguez-Saona, L. (2010). Chemical and instrumental approaches to cheese analysis. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 59, 167-213.
Ulberth, F. & Buchgraber, M. (2000). Authenticity of fats and oils. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology,  102, 687-694.
Wilhelmsen, E. C. (2006). Adulteration Determination in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Weinheim, Germany.